Conference Proceeding

Surface Thermodynamics Appproch to the Interactions to the Interactions between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Blood Cells Treated with Antiretroviral Drugs

Dr. Okwuchukwu Ani,
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

The interaction processes in HIV-drug coated blood interactions were determined by using Hamaker coefficient approach as a thermodynamic tool.

Dr. Okwuchukwu Ani graduated from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria as a Mechanical Engineer, with the specialties including Thermal Power (Thermodynamics). Later on he obtained his Master of Engineering (M.Eng) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria with subjects Engineering Thermodynamics and then started working at the Scientific Equipment Development Institute (SEDI), Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria, where he has continued his research. Presently he has been working at the Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, PMB 01660, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria.

The interaction processes in HIV-drug coated blood interactions were determined by using Hamaker coefficient approach as a thermodynamic tool. The methodology involved the serial dilution of the five different antiretroviral drugs (two HAART/FDC and three single drugs) and the subsequent incubation with the blood samples collected from ten HIV infected persons that had not yet commenced treatment with the antiretroviral drugs and ten blood samples of uninfected persons for the absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet Visible MetaSpecAE1405031Pro Spectrophotometer. The digital CD4 count machine (Cytoflowmeter) was used to obtain the CD4 counts of the blood samples. The variables required for the computations with the Lifshiftz formula were derived from the absorbance data. The MATLAB software tools were employed in the mathematical analysis of the very large body of data generated from the experiments. The Hamaker constants A11, A22, A33 and the combined Hamaker coefficients A132 and A131 of the various drugs interacting with the blood were obtained using the values of the dielectric constant together with the Lifshiftz equation. The absolute combined Hamaker coefficient, A132abs and A13Iabs (a mean of all the values of the various Hamaker coefficients) for each antiretroviral drug on both infected and uninfected blood samples were also calculated. The absolute values for the combined Hamaker coefficient, A132abs obtained for each of the five antiretroviral drugs interacting with infected blood samples are given thus: D1 = -0.03998×10-21 Joule, D2 = -0.05305×10-21 Joule, D3 = -0.05845×10-21 Joule, D4 = -0.02481×10-21 Joule, and D5 = -0.05844×10-21 Joule. The negative senses of the absolute combined Hamaker coefficient imply net negative van der Waals forces indicating a possible repulsion or blocking of the invading virus by the administered drug which coats the lymphocytes. This, however, confirms a functional cure for HIV infection which had been clinically established by the biological researchers. Similarly, The absolute values for the combined Hamaker coefficient, A131abs obtained for each of the five antiretroviral drugs interacting with uninfected blood samples are given thus: D1 = 0.36760×10-21 Joule, D2 = 0.46337×10-21 Joule, D3 = 0.53021×10-21 Joule, D4 = 0.50971×10-21 Joule, and D5 = 0.49599×10-21 Joule. The significance of this result are the positive values of the absolute combined Hamaker coefficient which imply net positive van der Waals forces indicating an attraction between the antiretroviral drugs and the lymphocytes. This in effect, suggests effective coating or binding of the lymphocytes with the drugs. A thermodynamic criterion for HIV-drug interaction prediction was suggested and found to be a valuable tool in HIV study. The findings of this work may be useful to pharmaceutical industries in drug design.

Published: 05 May 2017