Conference Proceeding

Prospects of Genetically Modified Crops for Insect, Pests and Disease Resistance

Ms. Diksha Kumari

Agricultural productivity is highly influenced by pest and disease, the most harmful factor concerning the growth and productivity of the crops world-wide. Conventional breeding methods are being used to develop the varieties more resistance to the biotic stresses. At the same time these methods are tedious, time and resource consuming, germplasm dependent as well. On the other hand pest management by chemicals obviously made considerable protection to the crops yields over the past few decades. Regrettably, extensive and very often usage of chemicals pesticides has resulted in adverse effect on environment, human health, eradication of beneficial microorganism & insects and development of pest resistant insects too. At this situation, biotechnology has been targeted for the development of crops having modified useful traits. A very successful molecular approach to engineering resistance has involved generating chimeric plants with the capability of synthesizing antimicrobial or insecticidal products (Bt δ-endotoxin). Numerous plant species have now been transformed with Bt δ-endotoxin, a bacterial gene expressing the insecticidal proteins, making the plants tissues toxic to several insect pests whose ccommercial productions are available for several important crops including corn, potato and cotton. The GM crops encoding enzymes like chitinase or glucanase are being quite useful in developing fungal and bacterial resistance in crop plants. Posts transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) approach has been widely used for developing genetically modified virus resistant plants. The silencing viral coat protein has been commercially exploited for developing genetically modified virus resistant plants (e.g. papayas and squash). Although, GM crop provide a number of ecological benefits and recent study also indicates no such human health risk after utilizing these crops. However, opponents have objected to accept GM crops on the grounds of environmental concerns, whether food produced from GM crops is safe and economic concerns raised by the fact these organisms are subject to intellectual property law. Therefore, the awareness programme should be undertaken to educate producers, consumers and government regulatory agencies regarding benefits offered by GM crops.

Published: 08 November 2017

Copyright:

Copyright: © 2017 Ms. Diksha Kumari. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.