Editorial Article

Perspectives on methods development for oxidative stress biomarkers quantification

Dr. Monica Vieira,

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance of antioxidants and oxidants in favour of the latter, potentially leading to damage and disruption of redox signalling and/or control of molecular damage (Jones, 2006; Sies, 2015).

*Corresponding author:

Mónica Vieira,
Email- mav@estsp.ipp.pt

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance of antioxidants and oxidants in favour of the latter, potentially leading to damage and disruption of redox signalling and/or control of molecular damage (Jones, 2006; Sies, 2015). Oxidative stress status determination has been a challenge for scientific community worldwide. So far, different biomolecules involved in this process have been pointed out as biomarkers for oxidative stress, such as glutathione and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) (Ho, Karimi Galougahi, Liu, Bhindi, & Figtree, 2013; Teixeira, Fernandes, Prudêncio, & Vieira, 2016).

Measurement of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in biological samples and the determination of serum levels of both reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione have proved to be important biomarkers for the evaluation of the nitrosative and oxidative status of an individual, respectively (Jansen & Ruskovska, 2015; Teixeira, Prudêncio, & Vieira, 2017). Increased 3-NT levels and abnormal glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) have been associated with several physiological and pathological conditions (Rahal et al., 2014; Teixeira et al., 2016).

During the last decade, different strategies for quantification of these biomolecules have been applied, all of them presenting pros and cons. Chromatography-based methods are clearly the ones that show better sensitivity and specificity. However, they often require time consuming steps, as is the case of sample derivatization. On the other hand, derivatization can lead to artifact formation which is a clear disadvantage (Teixeira et al., 2016).

Currently, it is primordial that the development of new methods for quantification of such biomolecules meets some important requirements. Most importantly, newly developed methods should i) be fast and straightforward, so that they can easily be implemented, for instance, in the medical laboratory field; (ii) be highly sensitive, since most of these biomolecules are present in extremely low concentrations, both under physiological and pathological conditions; and (iii) allow multi-analysis, for simultaneous quantification of different molecules, with further savings in time and cost.

By complying with these features, newly developed methods could be suitable for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of various oxidative stress-related pathologies in biological matrices.

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[2]. Jansen, E., & Ruskovska, T. (2015). Serum biomarkers of (Anti)oxidant status for epidemiological studies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(11), 27378–27390. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161126032
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[4]. Rahal, A., Kumar, A., Singh, V., Yadav, B., Tiwari, R., Chakraborty, S., & Dhama, K. (2014). Oxidative stress, prooxidants, and antioxidants: The interplay. BioMed Research International, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/761264 Sies, H. (2015). Oxidative stress: A concept in redox biology and medicine. Redox Biology, 4, 180–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2015.01.002
[5]. Teixeira, D., Fernandes, R., Prudêncio, C., & Vieira, M. (2016). 3-Nitrotyrosine quantification methods: Current concepts and future challenges. Biochimie, 125, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2016.02.011
[6]. Teixeira, D., Prudêncio, C., & Vieira, M. (2017). Development of a new HPLC-based method for 3-nitrotyrosine quantification in different biological matrices. Journal of Chromatography B, 1046, 48–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.01.035

Published: 08 April 2017

Copyright:

Copyright: © 2017 Monica Vieira. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.