Conference Proceeding

Muscle and brain connections with exercise rehabilitation in chronic stroke.

Dr. Alice S. Ryant

Evidence supports that aging and chronic disability can lead to changes in body composition, fitness and strength, and increase the risk for metabolic disease. There is a dramatic loss of muscle after stroke with a risk for sarcopenia and physical activity can result in positive muscle adaptations. I will demonstrate the existence of muscle atrophy and intramuscular fat and reflect on nutritional status, energy expenditure and inflammatory processes in a chronic hemiparetic stroke population. I will discuss changes in body composition with exercise rehabilitation and present data regarding the effects of resistive training on skeletal muscle composition in stroke survivors and on the molecular regulators of muscle development and size. Furthermore, stroke survivors have reduced cardiovascular fitness and mobility limitations as well as a high prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Data will be shown demonstrating differences in paretic, non-paretic, and control skeletal muscle insulin action during hyperinsulinemia and the effects of aerobic exercise rehabilitation on fitness and glucose

metabolism in chronic stroke. Data will be presented of neurotrophic factors in skeletal muscle post-stroke and the effects of exercise training on DNA methylation. It is of interest to study the epigenetic modifications with exercise rehabilitation in chronic stroke and to examine the relationships between skeletal muscle and the brain. Beneficial effects of exercise also include enhanced leg and cerebral blood flow. Moreover, exercise training can active subcortical neural networks and improve elements of executive function in the stroke population. Findings have implications for altering the muscle and brain connections and provide new mechanistically driven targets for exercise therapy in the field of stroke rehabilitation.

Published: 17 October 2017

Copyright:

Copyright: © 2017 Dr. Alice S. Ryant. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.