Conference Proceeding

HIV/AIDS: Oral lesions from a South Indian Cohort HIV/AIDS: Oral lesions from a South Indian Cohort

Dr. K. Ranganathan ,
Ragas Dental, Tamil Nadu, India

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection /Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), earlier considered as a major health problem to cause fatal illness, is today considered to be a chronic manageable condition.

Dr. Ranganathan obtained his BDS and MDS from The Tamilnadu Government Dental College, Chennai in 1987 and 1990 respectively. In 1993 he enrolled as a graduate student in the Department of Oral Pathology at the Ohio State University, USA and graduated with a Masters degree in 1996. He successfully passed the fellowship exam of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology in 1996. The Tamilnadu Dr MGR Medical University conferred him with PhD in 2010 for his work on Oral Submucous Fibrosis. He was awarded the Fellowship of Indian Association Of Oral Pathologists in 2010. He joined Ragas Dental College and Hospital in Chennai in 1996 as lecturer and now holds the post of Professor and Head Department of Oral Pathology. He was awarded the “Best Teacher Award” in 2011 for perpetuating academic excellence. He is in the doctoral committee of three Universities in Tamilnadu. He has served as a member of the Task force of the Department of Biotechnology and Indian Council of Medical Research, Government of India, and has been the secretary of the Indian Association of Oral Pathologists for two consecutive terms (2008-2012). He has 105 publications as author/coauthor, including contribution to six texts. He has been the guide to 71 dissertations submitted for the conferral of Masters Degree by the university.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection /Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), earlier considered as a major health problem to cause fatal illness, is today considered to be a chronic manageable condition. The total number of people living with HIV infection globally as of 2014 is approximated at 36.9 million, with the number of new infections being about 2 million, in the same year (UNAIDS). Oral lesions are a feature of HIV infection and their importance in diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis have been reported and confirmed in many studies across the globe. I present the oral manifestations of one of the largest cohort from India and trace the changes following introduction of ART. The purpose of this brief description is to highlight the importance of oral lesions, the trend over a decade and emphasize need for the oral health professionals to identify them, even with the advent of HAART. The cohort comprises of 5055 HIV positive patients from a tertiary referral centre; YRG CARE (Centre for AIDS Research and Education) at Chennai, India, seen over a period of 15 years. The diagnosis of oral lesions was based on the definitive EC-clearing house criteria and confirmation of HIV sero- status for all patients was by ELISA and Western blot. Of 5055 patients data for route of transmission was available for 4938 patients; 93% acquired HIV infection through the heterosexual route of transmission. Male to female ratio was 2.24:1.There was a significant difference (p=0.00) in the mean age among gender (males-36+ 8, females 32+9).There was also a significant difference in the mean CD4 count between males (314+ 239) and females (413+269).86%ofthe study group had at least one oral lesion. Of the HIV related oral lesions OC was seen in 14% of study population. Hyperpigmentation was seen in 18% of the subjects, after ruling out anemia, racial pigmentation and effect of smoking. There was a significant difference in occurrence of the oral lesions between genders. Oral lesions continue to be a feature of HIV infection and their prevalence is decreasing with the advent of HAART. However, emergence of newer entities such as HPV infection and co-morbid conditions such as tuberculosis, ART associated metabolic and adverse reactions need to be studied for their impact on oral health in addition to their systemic effects.

Published: 05 May 2017